##### Where Data Tells the Story

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Aug 8, 2023The United States is the world’s biggest goods importer making it a powerhouse in the global movement of goods.

With so many imports, it goes without saying that the country has a significant goods deficit with many of its trading partners. The deficit with China, for example, is $383 billion. Meanwhile, the total goods trade deficit is nearly $1.2 trillion and it increased by 9% in 2022.

Given that the country has trade relations with more than 200 countries, regions, and territories, this network of relationships is complex. This visual, using data from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, makes trade relationships easier to understand, ranking the biggest trading partners of the U.S. in terms of goods trade alongside the value of exports and imports.

Trade balances are characterized in two ways: deficits and surpluses.

Each balance is determined by calculating the difference in U.S. exports and imports with a given trade partner. So while the balance with Ireland is a deficit of $66.1 billion, the balance with the Netherlands is a surplus of $38.3 billion.

The U.S.’ largest trading partners are some of the world’s biggest exporters. ‘Made in China’ is ubiquitous for a reason. Manufacturing in places like Vietnam is playing a more essential role in the global economy, and thus the country shows up prominently on the chart above. Taiwan** **is also a major player due to its dominance in the semiconductor market.

Additionally, some of the most important partners are a case of proximity. Canada and Mexico** **are members of the USMCA agreement (which replaced NAFTA), making North America one of the world’s largest free trade zones. The U.S. dollar is typically stronger than the Canadian dollar and Mexican peso, making imports from Canada and Mexico relatively cheaper for U.S. consumers and businesses. Mexico’s lower labor costs and Canada’s petroleum surplus both play a role in trade imbalances as well.

While number one in terms of imports and services exports, the U.S. is the 2nd biggest goods exporter globally, revealed in its trade surpluses with countries like Hong Kong and the UK.

*See an expanded version of this article on **visualcapitalist.com*

Rank | Country | Exports | Imports | Balance |
---|---|---|---|---|

#1 | China | $153.8 B | $536.8 B | -$382.9 B |

#2 | Mexico | $324.4 B | $454.9 B | -$130.6 B |

#3 | Vietnam | $11.4 B | $127.5 B | -$116.1 B |

#4 | Canada | $356.1 B | $437.7 B | -$81.6 B |

#5 | Germany | $72.9 B | $146.6 B | -$73.7 B |

#6 | Japan | $80.3 B | $148.3 B | -$68.0 B |

#7 | Ireland | $16.0 B | $82.0 B | -$66.1 B |

#8 | Taiwan | $43.7 B | $91.8 B | -$48.1 B |

#9 | South Korea | $71.5 B | $115.3 B | -$43.9 B |

#10 | Thailand | $15.6 B | $58.7 B | -$43.1 B |

#11 | Italy | $27.4 B | $69.1 B | -$41.7 B |

#12 | India | $47.3 B | $85.7 B | -$38.3 B |

#13 | Malaysia | $18.1 B | $54.8 B | -$36.6 B |

#14 | Indonesia | $10.0 B | $34.6 B | -$24.6 B |

#15 | Switzerland | $36.9 B | $59.5 B | -$22.6 B |

#16 | Austria | $4.8 B | $17.8 B | -$13.1 B |

#17 | Russia | $1.7 B | $14.5 B | -$12.7 B |

#18 | Saudi Arabia | $11.6 B | $23.5 B | -$11.9 B |

#19 | France | $45.8 B | $57.4 B | -$11.5 B |

#20 | Sweden | $7.7 B | $17.1 B | -$9.4 B |

#21 | South Africa | $6.5 B | $14.6 B | -$8.1 B |

#22 | Israel | $14.2 B | $21.4 B | -$7.2 B |

#23 | Philippines | $9.3 B | $16.2 B | -$6.9 B |

#24 | Finland | $2.7 B | $8.7 B | -$6.1 B |

#25 | Hungary | $2.9 B | $7.7 B | -$4.8 B |

#26 | Czechia | $3.8 B | $7.5 B | -$3.7 B |

#27 | Norway | $4.7 B | $6.7 B | -$2.0 B |

#28 | Algeria | $1.2 B | $3.1 B | -$1.9 B |

#29 | Nigeria | $3.4 B | $4.8 B | -$1.4 B |

#30 | Poland | $11.3 B | $11.9 B | -$5.8 B |

#31 | Venezuela | $2.3 B | $0.4 B | ,$1.9 B |

#32 | Colombia | $20.6 B | $18.6 B | ,$2.0 B |

#33 | Spain | $26.5 B | $23.1 B | ,$3.4 B |

#34 | Egypt | $6.6 B | $2.8 B | ,$3.7 B |

#35 | Argentina | $12.9 B | $6.9 B | ,$5.9 B |

#36 | Chile | $23.3 B | $15.6 B | ,$7.7 B |

#37 | Belgium | $35.5 B | $26.8 B | ,$8.8 B |

#38 | United Kingdom | $77.3 B | $64.0 B | ,$13.3 B |

#39 | Australia | $30.2 B | $16.2 B | ,$14.0 B |

#40 | Singapore | $46.2 B | $31.6 B | ,$14.5 B |

#41 | Brazil | $53.6 B | $39.0 B | ,$14.6 B |

#42 | Hong Kong | $25.9 B | $4.8 B | ,$21.1 B |

#43 | Netherlands | $72.9 B | $34.6 B | ,$38.3 B |

Total | $2.07 T | $3.25 T | -$1.18 T |

All statistics referenced are seasonally adjusted; statistics are on a balance of payments basis unless otherwise specified. Additional statistics, including not seasonally adjusted statistics and details for goods on a Census basis, are available in exhibits 1-20b of this release. For information on data sources, definitions, and revision procedures, see the explanatory notes in this release. The full release can be found at www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/index.html or www.bea.gov/data/intl-trade-investment/international-trade-goods-and-services